Category Archives: suicide

Spirituality and mental health, some research

Spirituality and mental health, some research
10 votes

Scientists worldwide have been studying the effect of religion and spirituality on mental health and addiction recovery in children, teens, and adults.  Below are research findings that show religion and spirituality improve adult and adolescent mental health, including recovery from mental crises and substance abuse, when the spiritual approach carries messages of love, kindness, tolerance, and moral responsibility.  But when religion had a punitive or unforgiving message to those with mental or substance abuse disorders, the results were disheartening: a worsening of psychotic symptoms; inability to sustain recovery from substance abuse; and physical abuse.

If you look at the dates of some of these studies, you’ll see that researchers have been measuring of the value of spirituality for mental health and addiction for ~30 years, and results have consistently shown positive benefits which are statistically significant.  It’s hard core research–dense reading–so key findings and conclusions are in red in case you don’t want to scan through lengthy writing and jargon.

Enjoy,  Margaret

– – – – – – – – – –

God Imagery and Treatment Outcomes Examined
Currier JM, Foster JD, Abernathy AD, et al. God imagery and affective outcomes in a spiritually integrative inpatient program. [Published online ahead of print May 5, 2017]. Psychiatry Res. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.003.

Patients’ ability to derive comfort from their religious faith and/or spirituality emerged as a salient mediating pathway between their God imagery at the start of treatment and positive affect at discharge, a recent study found. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative information with a religiously heterogeneous sample of 241 adults who completed a spiritually-integrative inpatient program over a 2-year period, researchers tested direct and indirect associations between imagery of how God views oneself, religious comforts and strains, and affective outcomes.

FINDINGS

When accounting for patients’ demographic and religious backgrounds, structural equation modeling results revealed:
(1) overall effects for God imagery at pre-treatment on post-treatment levels of both positive and negative affect;
(2) religious comforts and strains fully mediated these links.

Secondary analyses also revealed that patients generally experienced reductions in negative emotion in God imagery over the course of their admissions.

“[Spirituality] enables neurotic conflicts typical for adolescence to be more easily overcome.”

The influence of religious moral beliefs on adolescents’ mental stability.
Pajević I, Hasanović M, Delić A., : Psychiatry Danub. 2007 Sep;19(3):173-83

University Clinical Centre Tuzla, Trnovac b.b, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia & Herzegovina. zikjri@bih.net.ba.
This study included 240 mentally and physically healthy male and female adolescents attending a high school, who were divided into groups equalized by gender (male and female), age (younger 15, older 18 years); school achievement (very good, average student); behaviour (excellent, average); family structure (complete family with satisfactory family relations), and level of exposure to psycho-social stress (they were not exposed to specific traumatizing events).  Subjects were assessed with regard to the level of belief in some basic ethical principles that arise from religious moral values.

CONCLUSIONS: A higher index of religious moral beliefs in adolescents enables better control of impulses, providing better mental health stability.  It enables neurotic conflicts typical for adolescence to be more easily overcome.  It also causes healthier reactions to external stimuli.  A higher index of religious moral beliefs of young people provides a healthier and more efficient mechanism of anger control and aggression control.  It enables transformation of that psychical energy into neutral energy which supports the growth and development of personality, which is expressed through socially acceptable behaviour.  In this way, it helps growth, development and socialization of the personality, leading to the improvement in mental health.

Religion, Stress, and Mental Health in Adolescence: Findings from Add Health

Nooney, J. G. 2008-10-23 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106431_index.html

 A growing body of multidisciplinary research documents the associations between religious involvement and mental health outcomes, yet the causal mechanisms linking them are not well understood.  Ellison and his colleagues (2001) tested the life stress paradigm linking religious involvement to adult well-being and distress.  This study looked at adolescents, a particularly understudied group in religious research.  Analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) reveals that religious effects on adolescent mental health are complex.  While religious involvement did not appear to prevent the occurrence of stressors or buffer their impact, some support was found for the hypothesis that religion facilitates coping by enhancing social and psychological resources.

 

Study Links Religion and Mental Health

David H. Rosmarin and Kenneth Pargament, Bowling Green State University, Ohio

(IsraelNN.com) 2008

A series of research studies – known as the JPSYCH program – reveals that traditional religious beliefs and practices are protective against anxiety and depression among Jews.  The research indicates that frequency of prayer, synagogue attendance, and religious study, and positive beliefs about the Divine are associated with markedly decreased levels of anxiety and with higher levels of happiness.  “In this day and age, there is a lot to worry about,” Rosmarin notes, “and the practice of religion may help people to maintain equanimity and perspective.”

 

The Once-Forgotten Factor in Psychiatry: Research Findings on Religious Commitment and Mental Health (excerpt)

David B. Larson, M.D., M.S.P.H., Susan S. Larson, M.A.T., and Harold G. Koenig, M.D., M.H.Sc.

Psychiatric Times.  Vol. 17 No. 10, October 1, 2000

 

“The data from many of the studies conducted to date are both sufficiently robust and tantalizing to warrant continued and expanded clinical investigations.”

 

Treatment of Drug Abuse

  • The lack of religious/spiritual commitment stands out as a risk factor for drug abuse, according to past reviews of published studies.  Benson (1992) reviewed nearly 40 studies documenting that people with stronger religious commitment are less likely to become involved in substance abuse.
  • Gorsuch and Butler (1976) found that lack of religious commitment was a predictor of drug abuse.  The researchers wrote:  “Whenever religion is used in analysis, it predicts those who have not used an illicit drug regardless of whether the religious variable is defined in terms of membership, active participation, religious upbringing or the meaningfulness of religion as viewed by the person himself.”
  • Lorch and Hughes (1985), as cited by the National Institute for Healthcare Research (1999), surveyed almost 14,000 youths and found that the analysis of six measures of religious commitment and eight measures of substance abuse revealed religious commitment was linked with less drug abuse.  The measure of “importance of religion” was the best predictor in indicating lack of substance abuse.  The authors stated, “This implies that the controls operating here are deeply internalized values and norms rather than fear or peer pressure.”
  • Developing and drawing upon spiritual resources can also make a difference in improving drug treatment.  For instance, 45% of participants in a religious treatment program for opium addiction were still drug-free one year later, compared to only 5% of participants in a nonreligious public health service hospital treatment program-a nine-fold difference(Desmond and Maddux, 1981).
  • Confirming other studies showing reduced depression and substance abuse, a study of 1,900 female twins found significantly lower rates of major depression, smoking and alcohol abuse among those who were more religious (Kendler et al., 1997).  Since these twins had similar genetic makeup, the potential effects of nurture versus nature stood out more clearly.

“lack of religious commitment was a predictor of drug abuse”

Treatment of Alcohol Abuse

  • Religious/spiritual commitment predicts fewer problems with alcohol (Hardesty and Kirby, 1995).  People lacking a strong religious commitment are more at risk to abuse alcohol (Gartner et al., 1991).  Religious involvement tends to be low among people diagnosed for substance abuse treatment (Brizer, 1993).
  • A study of the religious lives of alcoholics found that 89% of alcoholics had lost interest in religion during their teen-age years, whereas 48% among the community control group had increased interest in religion, and 32% had remained unchanged (Larson and Wilson, 1980).
  • A relationship between religious or spiritual commitment and the non-use or moderate use of alcohol has been documented.  Amoateng and Bahr (1986) reported that, whether or not a religious tradition specifically proscribes alcohol use,those who are active in a religious group consumed substantially less alcohol than those who are not active.
  • Religion or spirituality is also often a strong force in recovery.  Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) invokes a Higher Power to help alcoholics recover from addiction.  Those who participate in AA are more likely to remain abstinent after inpatient or outpatient treatment(Montgomery et al., 1995).

“…adolescents [who were] frequent church-goers with high spiritual support had the lowest scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.”

Suicide Prevention – Surging suicide rates plague the United States, especially among adolescents.  One in seven deaths among those 15 to 19 years of age results from suicide.

  • One study of 525 adolescents found that religious commitment significantly reduced risk of suicide(Stein et al., 1992).
  • A study of adolescents found that frequent church-goers with high spiritual support had the lowest scores on the Beck Depression Inventory(Wright et al., 1993).  High school students of either gender who attended church infrequently and had low spiritual support had the highest rates of depression, often at clinically significant levels.
  • How significantly might religious commitment prevent suicide?  One early large-scale study found that people who did not attend church were four times more likely to kill themselves than were frequent church-goers (Comstock and Partridge, 1972).  Stack (1983) found rates of church attendance predicted suicide rates more effectively than any other evaluated factor, including unemployment.  He proposed several ways in which religion might help prevent suicide, including enhancing self-esteem through a belief that one is loved by God and improving moral accountability, which reduces the appeal of potentially self-destructive behavior.
  • Many psychiatric inpatients indicate that spiritual/religious beliefs and practices help them to cope. Lindgren and Coursey (1995) reported 83% of psychiatric patients felt that spiritual belief had a positive impact on their illness through the comfort it provided and the feelings of being cared for and not being alone it engendered.

Potential Harmful Effects – Psychiatry still needs more research and clearer hypotheses in differentiating between the supportive use of religion/spirituality in finding hope, meaning, and a sense of being valued and loved versus harmful beliefs that may manipulate or condemn.”

 

Read my article “Faith can help, & harm, a family’s mental health,” for potential harmful effects on families. –Margaret

  • Alcoholics often report negative experiences with religion and hold concepts of God that are punitive, rather than loving and forgiving(Gorsuch, 1993).
  • Bowman (1989).  In assessing multiple personality disorder, children in rigid religious families, whose harsh parenting practices border on abuse, harbor negative images of God.  Josephson (1993),Individual psychopathology is linked with families whose enmeshment, rigidity and emotional harshness were supported by enlisting spiritual precepts.
  • Sheehan and Kroll (1990).  Of 52 seriously mentally ill hospitalized patients diagnosed with major depression, schizophrenia, manic episode, personality disorder and anxiety disorder, almost one-fourth of them believed their sinful thoughts or acts may have contributed to the development of their illness.  Without the psychiatrist inquiring about potential religious concerns, these beliefs would remain unaddressed, potentially hindering treatment until discovered and resolved.  Collaboration with hospital chaplains or clergy may help in some of these instances of spiritual problems or distress.

Conclusion

Religious/spiritual commitment may enhance recovery from depression, serious mental or physical illness, and substance abuse; help curtail suicide; and reduce health risks.  More longitudinal research with better multidimensional measures will help further clarify the roles of these factors and whether they are beneficial or harmful.

–Margaret

Do you like this article?  Please rate it at the top.

4 Comments

Filed under bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, depression, mental illness, mental illness, oppositional defiant disorder, parenting, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, suicide, teenagers, troubled children, yoga

How to work with police once you’ve called 911.

How to work with police once you’ve called 911.
1 votes

 

Q: When is it time to call 911?  I’ve been told many times that I should call the police or mental health hotline when there’s a crisis, but how do I know when it’s a real crisis?


A:  If your child is doing something dangerous to him or herself, or others (including a pet), or property, and if you can’t manage it or stop it, call for help.  “Dangerous” means threatening, harmful, or abusive.  Emergency 911 dispatchers, police, and mental health crisis workers all encourage anyone to call, anytime.  You will not bother them.  I once visited a 911 facility and got a chance to ask to speak with the staff and this was their message.  They described the many ways they can respond when a child or teen “blows out,” runs, or becomes suicidal.


Once you call the police:

Advice from the Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health (www.ffcmh.org).

  

1.   Remain as calm as you possibly can.

 

2.   Provide only facts as quickly and clearly as possible.

EXAMPLE:  I am calling from [address].  My 13 year old son is threatening to cut his sister.  He has [diagnosis] and may be off his medication and under the influence of alcohol.  There are 4 of us in the house: my mother, my son and daughter, and myself.

 

3.   Identify weapons in the vicinity or in your child’s possession and alert the dispatcher

 

4.   Be specific about what type of police assistance you are asking for.

EXAMPLE:  We want to protect ourselves and get my son to the emergency room for a psychiatric evaluation, but cannot do that by ourselves.  Please send help.

 

5.   Answer any questions the dispatcher asks.  Do not take offense when you are asked to repeat information.  This is done to double-check details and better assist you.

 

6.   Offer information to the dispatcher about how an officer can help your child calm down.

 

7.   Tell the dispatcher any addition information you can about what might cause you child’s behavior to become more dangerous—suggest actions the officer should avoid.

EXAMPLE:  Please don’t tell him to stand still.  He cannot hold his body still until he calms.  If you can get him to walk with you, he can listen and respond better.  He is terrified of being handcuffed.  Please tell him what he needs to do to avoid being handcuffed.

 

REMEMBER:  Your primary role in this situation is to be a good communicator.  Your ability to remain calm and provide factual details is critical the outcome of this situation.” 

– – – – – – –

 

What is your local police force like?  Call the non-emergency line and check, ask questions about how police typically respond to situations where a child or teenager is diagnosed with a mental disorder and out of control.

 

In many parents’ experiences, including mine, the police were very helpful.  Others have had poor experiences.  Some said their child calmed down and appeared normal once the police arrived, and they felt the police assumed they were exaggerating.  Some said the police only aggravated the crisis, and in a very few cases, the encounter lead to tragedy.

In 2007, I attended the national conference of the Federation of Families in Washington DC, and learned from the President of the National Association of Chiefs of Police, Ronald C. Ruecker, that the NACP has made a commitment to promote police training in crisis response to children with mental disorders, including information about the disorders and their manifestations.

Leave a Comment

Filed under bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, law enforcement, mental illness, oppositional defiant disorder, parenting, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, suicide, teens

Mental illness more deadly than cancer for teens, young adults

Mental illness more deadly than cancer for teens, young adults
2 votes

Why isn’t everyone more upset?  A disease is killing our children and it’s worse than cancer and leukemia.  Why is pychiatric research 30-40 years behind cancer, as well as the development of pharmaceuticals and other treatment modalities?

We don’t get casseroles when our child is hospitalized for a mental health crisis

Out of curiosity, I did some research on child mortality rates from various causes, because I wanted to know how death from mental illnesses compared with other fatal illnesses of childhood and adolescence. The results were astonishing, unexpected, and disturbing.

Childhood Illness Age Range Annual Deaths per 100,000 Children
Cancers, leukemia: 5-14 yrs 2.6
Cancers, leukemia: 15-19 yrs 3.6
Childhood diabetes: Avg. 15 yrs 2.2
Anorexia: 15 – 24 years 6
Suicide ** 10 – 14 years 1.6
Suicide ** 15 – 19 years 9.5
Suicide ** 20 – 24 years 13.6

(The chart columns are in the order listed in the box, somehow I couldn’t get the right grays!)

* The starting point for the data on the medical illnesses was the website for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdcp.gov  in Atlanta; the starting point for the mental illnesses was the website for the National Institute for Mental Health, www.nimh.gov.

** The suicide data was from those with depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and psychotic disorders-unspecified.  (Suicide from other mental health causes, such as borderline personality disorder and co-morbid substance abuse, is also prevalent but I could not find data for young adults.)

This screams out for a changes in attitude, policy, and investment in children’s mental health treatment!  I had no idea that death rates from mental illness were 3 to 4 times higher than the feared cancers and leukemias.  It is imperative that young people with mental health issues receive aggressive and sensitive treatment as would be expected and demanded of medical doctors treating cancer.

The data was difficult to find, requiring searches in many different medical journals and numerous articles, as nothing like it was compiled in one place.  I chose to use the cancer, leukemia, and diabetes data because deaths from all other causes were insignificant by comparison.  The death rates for cancer and leukemia are averages for the different forms of each, and in the journals they were presented together.

I welcome additions or corrections of this data from any other sources, and encourage readers to investigate this for themselves.

 

How am I doing?  Please “like” this post if you found it useful, thank you.

2 Comments

Filed under bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, depression, mental illness, mental illness, parenting, psychiatry, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, suicide, teenagers